Thursday, April 23

Lesson 5: The Two Kinds of “Have”




          The title of this lesson is actually a warning to you that there are two kinds of “Have” Verb. First, take a look at our sentences:

1.   I have a car.

2.    I have been to China. 

In the first sentence, “have” is like an Action Verb but it doesn't mean action. It means possessing something or being the owner. 

I have a key. 

On the other hand, the second sentence shows us the real “have” which is a completely different kind. This is the original “Have” Verb which comes from the Present Perfect Tense


We are going to talk about the situations in which we use the Present Perfect “Have” in another lesson titled “The Twelve Tenses of English." Right now, you need to become familiar with just its structure. Let’s go back to our two examples:
  
1.     I have a car.

2.     I have been to China.


1. 

In the first sentence, the Action Verb “Have is followed by a Noun. This is always true. And it’s easy. Just think of things (sometimes even people) that you or someone is the owner. For example, “I have a laptop,” I have a girlfriend,” “We have a problem,” “She has an apartment,” "They have long hair" etc.

In short: 
S + Have + Noun


2. 

Now, the real “Have” Verb is very different because it must always be followed by another Verb which is special: the Past Participle, also called the P.P.
  
Now what exactly is the P.P.?

 
You can find the list of the P.P. at the back of many grammar books and some dictionaries. You can also print it from the Internet. I've put a sample below. Take a look: 

Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
Past Participle
am / is / are
was, were
been
beat
beat
beaten
become
became
become
begin
began
begun
bend
bent
bent
bite
bit
bitten
blow
blew
blown
break
broke
broken
bring
brought
brought
build
built
built
burn
burned, burnt
burned, burnt
buy
bought
bought
catch
caught
caught
choose
chose
chosen
come
came
come
cost
cost
cost
cut
cut
cut
dig
dug
dug
dive
dived, dove
dived
do
did
done
draw
drew
drawn
dream
dreamed, dreamt
dreamed, dreamt
drink
drank
drunk
drive
drove
driven
eat
ate
eaten
fall
fell
fallen
feel
felt
felt
fight
fought
fought
find
found
found
fly
flew
flown
forget
forgot
forgotten, forgot
forgive
forgave
forgiven
freeze
froze
frozen
get
got
gotten, got
give
gave
given
go
went
gone
grow
grew
grown
hang (suspend)
hung
hung
have
had
had
hear
heard
heard
hide
hid
hidden
hold
held
held
hurt
hurt
hurt
keep
kept
kept
know
knew
known
lay (put)
laid
laid
learn
learnt, learned
learnt, learned
leave
left
left
lend
lent
lent
let
let
let
lie (recline)
lay
lain
lose
lost
lost
make
made
made
mean
meant
meant
meet
met
met
pay
paid
paid
prove
proved
proved, proven
put
put
put
quit
quit
quit
read
read
read
ride
rode
ridden
ring
rang
rung
rise
rose
risen
run
ran
run
say
said
said
see
saw
seen
sell
sold
sold
send
sent
sent
set
set
set
shake
shook
shaken
shine
shone
shone
shoot
shot
shot
show
showed
shown
shrink
shrank
shrunk, shrunken
shut
shut
shut
sing
sang
sung
sink
sank
sunk
sit
sat
sat
sleep
slept
slept
slide
slid
slid
speak
spoke
spoken
spend
spent
spent
spin
spun
spun
spread
spread
spread
stand
stood
stood
steal
stole
stolen
sweep
swept
swept
swim
swam
swum
take
took
taken
teach
taught
taught
tear
tore
torn
tell
told
told
think
thought
thought
throw
threw
thrown
wake
woke
woken
wear
wore
worn
understand
understood
understood
win
won
won
write
wrote
written


The list above is just a list of irregular (special) Verbs so it's not complete. But they are the most difficult and confusing so it's good if you study them. 

The words on the right side are the P.P. (Past Participle). You can see that they look different from the Simple Present and the Simple Past forms. 

It's a good idea to post a copy of this list where it's easy for you to see. Every day you can look at it and soon you can memorize it. 

Anyway, if you want to use the original “Have” Verb, make sure it’s followed by a Verb (not a Noun) and make sure that the Verb is P.P.  

In short: 
Have + P.P. 

Try and memorize all the P.P. forms on the list. You should practice this way:

                             eat                =                              have eaten

                             sleep            =                              have slept

                             see               =                              have seen


                             do                =                              have done  etc.

This is another good formula in English: If your “Have” Verb doesn’t mean owner or possession, then you should follow the pattern:

S + Have + P.P.

****
         
Lastly, some students might ask: “How about ‘I have to…’ – I have to study, I have to go, I have to eat etc?”
         

Have to” is different from our lesson today because “Have to” is actually a Modal Verb. Modal Verbs are words like “must,” “can,” “should” etc. and they are used in a different way.

 And now that we started talking about it, this would be a good time to move on to our next topic…  

Keep on learning !






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