Wednesday, April 29

Lesson 7: How to Match Your Subject and Verb





There is one basic rule in English that a Verb must match the Subject. The grammar books call this rule  Subject and Verb Agreement. According to this rule, a Singular Subject must have a Singular Verb and a Plural Subject must have a Plural Verb

Singular = one 

Plural = many 


But students should be careful because they might misunderstand what is Singular and what is Plural. In English, Subjects and Verbs are very different about this. 

Take a look: 


As you can see, sometimes the Subject and the Verb look opposite to each other. The Singular Subject has no "s" while the Singular Verb has "s." The Plural Subject has "s" while the Plural Verb has no "s." 

Anyway, it will be very confusing if you think about the rule. The best thing to do is to memorize it. In fact, many of you are already familiar with it:


* = "You" can be one or many, but its Verb is always Plural. "I" is one but its Verb is Plural.  

In the case of the "Be" Verb, we have to say:


Finally, when we use the “Have” Verb:


But I have some good news for you: if you use the Modal Verbs, you don't need to care about the rule because a Modal Verb never changes no matter its Subject. Like this:


The Subject and Verb Agreement rule is a part of English that you can learn by practice. In fact, by practice is the only way to learn it. You have to memorize all the different combinations of Subject and Verb and make them your habit, a part of your life.

There's a simple exercise you can do - even alone. When you’re reading an English book at the coffeeshopan English newspaper or online article on the subway, choose a sentence that is in the Present Tense (not Past or Future). For example:

She comes to the store every weekend.

They are working now.

I have met the new manager.

He is a fine fellow.

Next, practice changing the Subject into the different Pronouns. In Lesson 1, I taught you that there are 7 of them: 
  1. I
  2. He
  3. We
  4. You
  5. She
  6. They
  7. It

The 7 Pronouns are easy to memorize so practice with them. Of course if you change the Subject, the Verb must change too.  

          

Or, if you want, you can practice with my special paragraph:

The man is wearing his costume. He is a clown. He goes to the circus. He has worked there for a long time. He was an office worker before.


  •  STEP 1: Change the Subject of the first sentence into the 7 Pronouns (don’t forget to change the Verbs as well):

STEP 2:Keep on practicing until you memorize the Subject and Verb combinations.

In sum...


You should become very familiar with the combinations. You must be able to use them in real life, without forgetting or mixing them up. 

****

Students sometimes don't care about matching the right form of Verb to their Subject. But this has a very big effect. Someone who can make long sentences but can't match his Subject and Verb well still sounds like a low-level speaker of English

It’s not enough to know this rule on paper. You should be able to do it in real life – fast and without any mistakes or pauses (Ex. He wantHe wants to= X). That’s why you need a lot of practice to make the Subject and Verb Agreement automatic; like a reflex.

You might read on the Internet mismatched Subjects and Verbs such as "I can hasor "I are” or "I is," but this is similar to the language of a baby. One famous Net character, Lolcat, often uses this kind of bad grammar for fun. It will be dangerous if you copy it.







                                       
                       
Keep on learning !



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Tuesday, April 28

Lesson 7: 主語 (S)と述語 (V)の呼応



おそらく、英語学習者がする最も基本的な間違いは、主語と述語の呼応についてだろう。その規則とは単数形の主語に対しては述語の単数形、複数形の主語に対しては述語の複数形を使わなければならないというものだ。しかし、英語において、述語は名詞のように単数形になったり複数形になったりしないということを君は覚えているはずだ。実際、名詞と述語は全く逆の法則に従っている。

この説明は難しく聞こえるが、多分、君は既にこのルールを知っている。それは単に、僕たちが以下のように言わなければならない、ということなんだ。


*主語は単数形、しかし、動詞は複数形に対応したものが使われる。
そして、be動詞については、以下のように言わなければならない。


最後は“have”場合   


            次に助動詞。助動詞は、主語によって形が変わることはない。つまり、このルールを覚える必要はない。


これは、練習によって学ぶことができる英語だ。やる気さえあれば、色々な学習方法がある。例えば、カフェで英語の本を読んだり、出勤途中の地下鉄で英語雑誌を読んだりできる。その時は現在形(過去や未来ではなく)の述語を含む文を選んで欲しい。

例えば、
She comes to the store every weekend.
They are working now.
I have met the new manager.
He is a fine fellow.
そして、異なった主語に合った代名詞に変える練習をしてみてほしい。序章の中で、代名詞が7つあることは説明したね。それはIHeWeYouSheTheyIt 頭の中で考えるのでも良いし、声を出して言ってみるのも良い。いずれの方法にせよ、事あるごとに、主語に合った述語に変える練習をして欲しい。(もちろん述語変化するはず)



もし良ければ、僕が用意したこの具体例で練習することも出来る。
The man is wearing a costume. He is a clown. He goes to the circus. He has worked there for a long time. He was an office worker before.
ステップ 1: 単純に最初の文の主語を7つの代名詞に替える。(同様に、述語を変えるのを忘れないで
ステップ 2: これを全て暗記するまで練習し続けて欲しい。

****
主語にあわせて述語を変えることは、当然なことのようで、とても重要だ。速く長い文を話せても、主語と述語を合わせることができない人は、低レベルの英語スピーカー(Tarzanターザンのような)のように聞こえてしまう。
TARZAN copyright Disney

この文法を理論や紙の上で知っていても十分とは言えない。実際の場面で上手に早くそれができるようにならなければならない。“He want to…He wants to…”と、会話の中でつかえてしまったり、止まったり、もとに戻ったりするのは、とにかく良くないことだ。それを覚えておいてほしい。だから、主語と述語の呼応を条件反射的に出来るようになるためには、たくさんの練習が必要なのだ。

まず、次のステップに移る前に、この基本的なポイントを押さえてほしい。これを取得できないのなら、君はちょっと我慢が足りないかもしれない。もし、この部分をとばして、流暢に英語を話したとしても、最終的には長い表現や文章を練習した後で、僕が言っていることの意味が分かると思う。つまり、君に変な癖がつかず、まっさらな状態のうちに、こういった基礎的なことを覚えておいた方が良いといいわけだ。

近頃、インターネット上で主語と述語の変な組み合わせがどんどん増えてきているのを見かける。特に“memes”やおかしなサイトの中で、大量にものすごい速さで飛び交っている。よく見かけるのは、“I are…” 又は “I is…” など。

でも、これらの投稿は、ネコ語や赤ちゃん言葉が文法的にめちゃくちゃだから、わざとパロディーにしているんだと思っておいたほうがいい。元々、遊びのために作られたサイトだから、そんなものを実生活でまねしたりしたら、他の人から変に思われてしまう。

Keep on learning !






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Monday, April 27

Basic Sentence Patterns




This is Part 1 of a series of videos about the Basic Sentence Patterns.

Part 1 discusses:
  1. the S + V (or S + IV) 
  2. the S + V + O (or S + TV + O) 
Check it out: 





If you have any questions about the video, or if you'd like to watch the next episode, subscribe to my Youtube channel. Just click the icon below:



Hope You Learned Something! 

Keep on learning !






Saturday, April 25

Lesson 6: What are Modal Verbs?





Modal Verbs add a special meaning to your sentence. And they are fun to use. They just become confusing when they are in the past tense and when they have many different meanings. 

Anyway, at this point you should try to use Modal Verbs freely. Enjoy practicing them to add spice or flavor to your sentence. 

Take a look at our example below:                        

You can see how a simple sentence of fact like "I study English" can change meaning because of Modal Verbs. Notice, too, how each Modal Verb can give a different meaning to the sentence.

Here's a list of the Modal Verbs as they are arranged from strong to weak: 


Some students might be surprised because they learned in high school that Should is the same level as Must or Have to. This is a wrong idea. In fact, Should is just a middle-level Modal Verb

Now, here's the same list of Modal Verbs together with their basic meaning:

must/ have to = duty/ obligation

will= future Tense/prediction 

would = imaginary situation 

should = advice/ opinion 

can= ability / permission

could= possibility/ guess

might/may = possibility/ guess


If you put "have to" inside the sentence "I study English," your sentence "have to study English" means that it's your duty - you don't have a choice and sometimes you are forced to do it. Next, if you say "should study English," then the sentence isn't so strong and it just talks about an opinion or sometimes advice. It's the right thing to do but you can still choose if you don't want to. Finally, if you say "can study English," this means you have the ability or power to do the action.

As you can see, each Modal Verb changes the meaning of the sentence. So Modal Verbs are very useful when you want to express what you think or how you feel exactly.



It will be very practical for you to remember the formula to use Modal Verbs: anytime you want to use them, they must always be followed by the base form of the Verb.     

Some of you might already know, but a Verb has three forms: 
  1. the base, 
  2. the Past 
  3. the P.P. 

Today we need to practice the first one. Every time you want to use a Modal Verb please make sure that the word after it is a Verb and it is in the base form.

This means that it's wrong to say "I will happy" or "They must dancing." 

In the first sentence, you are using an Adjective after the Modal Verb so it's impossible. You can change it into a Verb ("I will smile" or  “I will laugh”). Or, you can add a Verb to the word "happy." And because "happy" is an Adjective, as we learned in Lesson 3, we should say: "I will be happy."

The example "They must dancing" is the same. You must change your Verb to the base form - They must dance - or, if you really want to use the V+ing, then you need to combine it with the Be Verb They must be dancing.    
   
These are very simple examples, but you can see how your teacher and native speakers can have good grammar in their sentence. They just follow a rule on how to use one word and sometimes they combine two rules (but they never break a rule)

Take a look: 

               Rule of the Modal Verbs                                           Rule of the Adjective


                    will + base verb                               +                         be + happy


Finally:

                                        Rule of the Modal Verbs and the Adjective Combined:

                                                                   will be happy
   

And:

            Rule of the Modal Verbs                                         Rule of the V+ing


            must + base verb                             +                         be + dancing


                                   
Rule of the Modal Verbs and the V+ing combined:

  must be dancing


This is what happens inside the head of your teacher. Your teacher remembers rules (not too many, don't worry) and always follows them. The difference between your teacher and you is that he can use and combine the rules very, very fast inside his mind. This skill needs a lot of practice. 

First you have to learn more rules; then of course you need to keep on practicing them. But what I've taught you so far (the formulas for the "Be" Verb, Adjective, the V+ing, the “Have” Verb, and the Modal Verbs) are already a big part of the English language. If you can remember those formulas, if you can use them in your life (not just on paper), then you will soon become a good English speaker.

I don't mean that you should worry too much or be too afraid to speak. It's Ok to make mistakes because it's from our mistakes that we can develop. But you do need to realize why you made a mistake and to try and avoid making the same mistake in the future. You can do this by remembering a few simple formulas. 

Right now let's end our lesson on Modal Verbs because you will have many other chances to study them deeper. For now it's enough to have an idea how and why Modal Verbs are used. Let's review everything we've learned...



The Center of the English Solar System (The S and the V)


copyright free images / caltiva

Let's go back to Figure No.2...


Now that I've taught all the different Verbs in English, use them. Every time you speak in English, try to speak in a complete sentence. You should have a Subject and a Verb.

****
         
A complete sentence has a Subject and a Verb. But there’s one special case. When we give a command or make a request, it’s enough to say:

Clean your room.

Do your homework.

Please take out the trash.

Please pass me the salt.

Surprisingly, all the sentences above are also complete sentences. They are called “Imperative” sentences and they always start with a base verb (not V+ing or anything else)

The strange thing is, Imperative sentences don’t have any Subject Their Subject is always the same: “You,” and we can not see it. Like so:

(You) Clean your room.

(You) Do your homework.

(You) Please pass me the salt.

(You) Please lend me a pen.  

You should never say “You inside an Imperative sentence. You don't need to put a Subject anyway. When you want to give a command or make a request, always start your sentence with a base verb (don't use a V+ing like some students do).

This is true only when you want to give a command or make a request. That’s why this is a special case. In other situations or 95% of the time, when you speak in English, always try to make a complete sentence. Remember this formula: 

Sentence = S + V

Like I said in Lesson 1, one of the first problems of students is their habit of speaking in words and phrases, not complete sentences. When you study any kind of language, habits are hard to change. If you speak in words and phrases, your teacher can't help you. But if you try to make complete sentences, even not perfectly, your teacher can guide you.
   
So, from today, don't say "Yes" or "No" or "Me" or "Supermarket." Always make sure that what you say has 2 parts – the Subject and the Verb. So you should say "I can" or "He isn't." "I will" or "He goes to the supermarket." You can make a wrong sentence: "He go supermarket" or "They is coming" but that's Ok. At least your ability is developing, not stopped. 
Keep on learning !







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