Wednesday, June 12

Opposites + Prepositions





Today is Independence Day in the Philippines, and we are celebrating a holiday. Hooray!!!



In fact, Google made this colorful GIF especially for this occasion:






Because today is Independence Day, two of the target words that we are going to learn today are “dependent” and “independent.”



In general, today we’re going to learn about Opposites. Or what we call Antonyms.



What is an Antonym?



An Antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word.



For example,


Word

Antonym
fat
thin
light
heavy
dark
bright
expensive
cheap
sure
unsure
show
hide
keep
throw away
etc.



If you want to know more about Antonyms, kindly click the link below:






Using Antonyms is kinda easy. You just have to memorize Vocabulary, which word has the opposite meaning to another word.



But trouble happens when another grammar unit gets involved: Prepositions.




Opposites + Prepositions



Our lesson for today is “Opposites + Prepositions.”



Sometimes it’s easy to learn Opposites and their Prepositions because they don’t change a lot.



For example, here are 5 words and their Antonyms:



Word

Antonym
good
bad
proud
ashamed
agree
disagree
approve
disapprove
immune
susceptible



*Note:Immune” means that you are safe from a disease and you can’t be infected.


image courtesy of stock.xchng



Next, if we take a look at the Prepositions that often come together with our words, you will notice that they are the same. They don’t change:



Word
+
Preposition

Antonym
+
Preposition
good at
bad at
proud of
ashamed of
agree with
disagree with
approve of
disapprove of
immune to
susceptible to



Do you see it? Because of this, it’s easy to make sentences.


Ex.


I’m good at dancing, but I’m bad at singing.


She’s proud of her legs, but she’s ashamed of her nose.


I agree with your first comment, but I disagree with the second.


My father approves of me wearing makeup, but he disapproves of me having a boyfriend.  


Your kid is immune to measles, but he is still susceptible to flu.



Easy, right? But it’s not always like this. Sometimes, Antonyms completely change their Prepositions.



For example,


Word

Antonym
encourage
discourage
succeed
fail
dependent
independent
live
die
empty
fill



Here are their different Prepositions:


Word

Antonym
encourage to*
discourage from
succeed in
fail to*
dependent on
independent of
live on
die of / from
empty of
fill with



*Note: In the case of “encourage to” and “fail to,” “to” isn’t really a Preposition but part of the Infinitive. In any case, it’s useful to memorize the two words together as a set: "encourage + to" and "fail + to."



As you can see on the table, it’s important to memorize not only the Antonyms of words but also the Prepositions that come together with them.



It’s not enough to remember just the Preposition of the original word, rather, it’s necessary to remember how the Preposition changes from original to Antonym.




Making Sentences



If you can remember how the Preposition changes from original to Antonym, then you will be good at making sentences.



Like these:



My mom encourages me to study foreign languages but she discourages me from travelling.


He succeeded in getting rich, but he failed to keep his family together.


Teenagers are often dependent on their parents, then at university they start to become independent of their parents.  


I can’t live on such a small salary! I’ll die of / from starvation!

*starvation = hunger


First, can you empty the jar of its contents? Then, can you fill it with sand?


image courtesy of stock.xchng



Because we are using Prepositions (except for “encourage to” and “fail to”), please be sure to use a Verb+ing after them. You can also use a Noun.


Ex.


My father discourages me from singing. = Ok

My father discourages me from sing. = X

They succeeded in business. = Ok

They succeeded in getting a lot of customers. = Ok

They succeeded in get a lot of customers. = X

They succeeded to get a lot of customers. = X

(“succeed” must be followed by “in”)




Some Points



First point: Since the introduction of our lesson today is about the Philippine Independence Day, let me tell you this:



The common Preposition to use after the word “independent” is “of.” This is why our example is:



At university, young adults start to become independent of their parents.



You can also say:



A wife can be financially independent of her husband.



But there is one special case when we use a different Preposition. If you’re talking about 2 different countries, you can use “independent from.”



For example,


The Philippines became independent from Spain on June 12, 1898.



Second point: We used the word “empty” here as a Verb. But you can also use it as an Adjective:



Word

Antonym
Type
fill with
empty of
Verb
full of
empty of
Adjective



Please remember that we say “fill with” while we say “full of.” But when you use the word “empty,” whether as a Verb or as an Adjective, you can use the Prepositionof.”


Ex.


Please fill the jar with sand.

The jar is full of sand.

Please empty the box of its contents.

The road is empty of traffic.




In Summary



It’s important to pay attention not only to words but also to the Prepositions that often come together with them. Prepositions are short words so it’s very easy to ignore them. But if you don’t know which Preposition to use with a word, then you can’t make sentences in English.



It’s not enough to know just the meaning of words, you also have to remember how to use them.





Hope You Learned Something!

Keep on learning !










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