Thursday, November 29

Who's Dangerous?









The sign above can be seen along one of the moats of Nagoya Castle. At least that’s what I heard. Anyway, whether this is true or not, it’s a good jumping-off point to discuss the word “Dangerous” – a frequent source of confusion among students.



Let’s begin.



Actually, in terms of grammar, the way the word “Dangerous” is used in the sign above is partially correct. Indeed, many learners are aware that “Dangerous” is an Adjective and so it must be used together with the be Verb.



This way:



Be + dangerous



But once you consult a dictionary to check the meaning of the word, that’s when you realize the problem:



dangerous – definition


ADJECTIVE Pronunciation: [deyn-jer-uhs, deynj-ruh s]


able or likely to harm or kill you


Ex. a dangerous man 




The meaning of “Dangerous” is “able or likely to harm or kill you.”



This is why you need to be careful in choosing which word you will connect. Whether you’re using “Dangerous” as an Adjective or as a Complement, it will describe or modify the other word.



This way:
So if you say “a dangerous man,” this is what you mean:



The man in this picture is a dangerous man. 




It’s the same when you change the structure:



He is dangerous.

I am dangerous.

You are dangerous.

etc.



This and most other images here are courtesy of stock.xchng




We also say: “WARNING: Cigarette Smoking is Dangerous to Your Health.”







How to Fix It



Like what I told you, you need to make the Subject of your sentence match the word “Dangerous.”



How can we do that? Like this:



S  + be + dangerous


__ + be + dangerous

                                         ^
                                         ^
                                         ^

A gun is dangerous.


A tiger is dangerous.


Bungee-jumping is dangerous.


Terrorists are dangerous.



But what if we want to express a more complicated situation? What if we need to use a much longer expression?



First, just keep the same structure.



For example,



Eating fugu is dangerous.






Crossing the street is dangerous.


Riding a motorcycle at top speed is dangerous.


Walking around alone at night is dangerous.



As you might feel, especially in our last 2 examples, the Subject has already become too long and it sounds unnatural. What do the native speakers do in this case?



Well, just move the long Subject from the beginning of the sentence to the end. Like this:

Good. But now we don’t have any Subjects. So what do we do?



Next, we insert the word “It” where our Subject used to be. This way:
Now you have complete sentences again. And they’re better because they’re more natural.



Do you know? The Subject of our sentences is “It” but it’s what we call a “dummy” Subject. “Dummy” means not real or just like a doll.



This means that the word “It” doesn’t have any direct meaning but it’s still used to make the sentence complete and natural.



This is a very useful pattern that you should remember:



It’s Adjective to + Verb


It’s dangerous to Verb




So…



Now let’s go back. How do we fix our example sign in the beginning?



As I already explained to you, this is wrong:



You mustn’t enter. You are dangerous. = X



First, you can try changing it this way:



You mustn’t enter. This area is dangerous. = Ok



Second, this is also possible:



You mustn’t enter. Entering this area is dangerous. = Ok



But better than the second one is this:



You mustn’t enter. It’s dangerous to enter this area. = Ok



Finally, this is the best:



Danger. Do not enter. = Ok



Why?



The last one's the best because this is the most common way to write this sign around the world. Most people already understand what these words mean.



The complete version of this sign is:



(There’s) Danger. Do not enter.




The Last Way



If you want, you can also use the Noun form: “Danger.”



But in this case you have to use the phrase “in danger.”



For example,



You are in danger. = Ok


Or,


Your life is in danger. = Ok



But as you might feel, these sentences are longer and tend to sound less urgent. This is the reason why most people prefer the simpler and shorter version:



DANGER. DO NOT ENTER.






Hope you learned something!

Keep on learning !
















Monday, November 26

Basic Law Words





image courtesy of stock.xchng




Today we’re going to learn a set of words that's a little different from the usual.



First of all, do you remember our previous lesson on the word “Blame?”



If you still haven’t read it or if you've already forgotten, try to refresh your memory by visiting that topic first, then come back here.



Just click this link: 







Like I said, our target words for today are different from the usual.



They are:



suspect, accuse, charge, and arrest



Why? What makes these different from other words?




Well, although the word “Suspect” is also used to talk about average, everyday situations:



Ex. I suspect that it will rain.



often it can have this meaning: 



You believe that a person is guilty of a crime.



The same is true with the other words that we have today: “Accuse,” "Charge,” and “Arrest.” All of them talk about crime and law.



On the other hand, the word “Blame” cannot have this kind of meaning.



Please compare:



(1)    I suspected him of stealing the bag. = Ok


(2)    I blamed him for stealing the bag. = X



This is why we can hear our 4 words in news reports about criminal and legal matters – or cases that involve the police and the law.






Meaning



  • Suspect = to believe that a person is guilty of a crime



  • Accuse = to say that a person has committed a crime



  • Charge = to say officially that a person has committed a crime 



  • Arrest = (of the police) to take a person to a police station because they believe he or she has committed a crime 




How to Use in a Sentence



Step # 1: You have to remember that our 4 words are used with Prepositions. And take note: not just any Preposition is Ok. We have to remember the exact Preposition that matches the Verb.



Just like what we studied in our lesson on “Blame,”



Blame + for




the formulas for our 4 topic words today are:




Suspect + of

Accuse + of

Charge + with

Arrest + for



Like I said, you have to remember the correct Preposition and not mix them up. Don’t use a different Preposition because it won’t match the Verb.





*Note: In the case of “Arrest,” other Preposition Phrases are also possible:


Arrest + for

Arrest + in connection with

Arrest + on charges of

Arrest + on suspicion of



But it would be better for a learner like you to concentrate on practicing the first one: the Preposition for” together with “Arrest.”
 



Step # 2:  Don’t forget to add an Object after our 4 words.




Like this:


Suspect + somebody + of

Accuse + somebody + of

Charge + somebody + with

Arrest + somebody + for



Why? This is because the 4 words above are very often Transitive Verbs. So they need an Object (somebody) after them.



But what about on TV? You might ask. Perhaps in a news report you’ve heard these 4 words used without Objects.



Actually, they still have Objects in news reports. But they're all being used in the Passive structure.




Take a look:


                            Active                                   Passive



The police suspected him of robbery. = He was suspected of robbery.


The police accused him of robbery. = He was accused of robbery.


The police charged him with robbery. = He was charged with robbery.


The police arrested him for robbery. = He was arrested for robbery.




As you can see in our examples above, there’s still an Object in all our sentences (the Object is “He”). But because the sentence pattern is Passive, the Object moves to the beginning of the sentence and becomes a Subject.



The Passive structure is a very common sentence pattern in news reports, so please familiarize yourself with our examples.



Here are more Passive sentences:



They were suspected of murder.


Michael Jackson was accused of child molestation.


I was charged with drug possession.


He was arrested for domestic violence.



All our examples are followed by Nouns (murder, child molestation, drug possession, and domestic violence).



But because we're using Prepositions, we can also put Gerunds or V+ing after them:



She was suspected of stealing all the data.


We were accused of uploading illegal content.


You are charged with speeding.


I will be arrested for drink driving.





Finally...



There are many other terms you need to learn if you want to know legal English (or legalese). This is a whole new set of expressions used in legal situations, and government and official documents. This English is often the kind used by lawyers especially.



The few words above are just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak.



Other examples of legal English include Terms and Conditions, Disclaimer, and Data Use Policy. They’re the seemingly obscure documents full of specialized, high-level words that you get from websites and other apps. 



(I hope you don’t just click "Agree" to them all without reading because it’s important that you understand their content first.)




This is Facebook's Data Use Policy 




In addition, you can see legal English in the contract that you get when you enter a new company, buy or rent an apartment, etc.



So, I hope you’re interested in learning more English terms for legal matters, and that you’ll keep studying higher-level words.





Hope you learned something!

Keep on learning !















Any Questions?

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